The current Turkish alphabet is based on the (standard) Latin alphabet with symbols borrowed from various alphabets across Europe such as German, Swedish and Albanian. There are 29 characters in the Turkish alphabet, 21 consonants and 8 vowels. The Turkish alphabet was standardized in 1928 as part of reforms to the Turkish language.
Because of the unique or non-standard Latin characters in the Turkish alphabet it can be a challenge to use when writing online as not all operating systems or web browsers will have the Turkish alphabet installed. One issue is that romanizing or transliterating Turkish characters can change the pronunciation and the meaning of the word and no one standard has been adopted universally.
To make sure your content can be read and understood by everyone, it's best to use the Unicode standard. This will ensure that your text can be read on any device, regardless of whether or not the Turkish alphabet is installed.
Unicode is primarily used online as a way of making sure that the characters display correctly (ie non-Roman words, accents etc). To make sure characters can be displayed Unicode provides a unique number for every character.
Use this converter to convert Turkish to Unicode and Unicode to Turkish. We have lots of other resources for learning Turkish, including for creating learn Turkish worksheets.